China’s Asymmetric Warfare in Indonesia: The Case of Turnkey Project Management

Fitria Fitria

Abstract


This article aims to shed light on China’s asymmetric warfare in Indonesia through the Turnkey Project Management (TPM) scheme. TPM is an employment contract to carry out Chinese investment with a one-package system starting from funding with the preferential buyer’s credit system, materials and machines, experts, and workers, are emanated from China. This study employed qualitative research and used a research library to collect data. It found that TPM is an integral part of China’s foreign policy to pursue its national interests. China also relies more on its state-owned enterprises and private companies (non-state actors), thereby minimizing the state’s role. Indonesia suffered from losses more than it gains from the win, implying this scenario is more of a zero-sum game. The foreign workers from China have also caused social problems in Indonesia, such as cybercrime and the smuggling of methamphetamine. The results of this study include recommendations for enabling Indonesian workers to adapt to foreign technology regarding a transfer of knowledge; strengthening regulations that meet environmental standards, human rights, and good corporate governance in terms of foreign investment; and not to make the regulation easier for allowing Chinese workers.

KEYWORDS
Asymmetric Warfare; China; Indonesia; Turnkey

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anam, S., & Ristiani. (2018). Kebijakan Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) Tiongkok pada Masa Pemerintahan Xi Jinping. Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional, 14(2), 217-236 https://doi.org/10.26593/jihi.v14i2.2842.217-236.

Arreguín-Toft, I. (2001). How the weak win wars: A theory of asymmetric conflict. International Security, 26(1), 93–128. https://doi.org/10.1162/016228801753212868

Arreguín-Toft, I. (2012). Contemporary asymmetric conflict theory in historical perspective. Terrorism and Political Violence, 24(4), 635–657. https://doi.org/10.1080/09546553.2012.700624

Asrudin, A. (2017). Thomas Kuhn dan Teori Hubungan Internasional: Realisme sebagai Paradigma. Global South Review, 1(2), 107. https://doi.org/10.22146/globalsouth.28830

Badaruddin, M., & Octavia, S. (2018). Turnkey Project Dan Dinamika Pengaturan Ketenagakerjaan Asing Di Indonesia. Jurnal Asia Pacific Studies, 1(2), 137-154. https://doi.org/10.33541/japs.v1i2.617

Bodgan, R., & Biklen, S.K. (1998). Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theory and Methods. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data.

Buffaloe, D. L. (2006). Defining Asymmetric Warfare. The Land Warfare Papers. 58, 1-34.

Dinter Jr, H. P. (2001). U.S. Army Special Forces Roles in Asymmetric Warfare. (Master thesis, University of Massachusetts).

Fadhil, H. (2019, May 09). KPK Ingatkan BUMN Hati-hati Terima Investasi dari China. DetikNews. https://news.detik.com/berita/d-4542409/kpk-ingatkan-bumn-hati-hati-terima-investasi-dari-china

Fundrika, B. A. (2020, September 19). Napi WNA China Dihukum Mati Selundupkan Narkoba, Sudah 2 Kali Kabur. SuaraJakarta.Id. https://jakarta.suara.com/read/2020/09/19/011000/napi-wna-china-dihukum-mati-selundupkan-narkoba-sudah-2-kali-kabur?page=all

Hamdani, T. (2019, February 27). Tenaga Kerja China Paling Banyak di RI, Ada 32.209 Orang. DetikFinance. https://finance.detik.com/berita-ekonomi-bisnis/d-4445835/tenaga-kerja-china-paling-banyak-di-ri-ada-32209-orang

Hendrajit. (2015, June 06). Membaca Modus Perang Asimetris Tiongkok di Indonesia. Aktual Review. https://aktual.com/membaca-modus-perang-asimetris-tiongkok-di-indonesia/

Jati, G. P. (2014, November 10). Jokowi Sodorkan Ratusan Proyek Infrastruktur. CNN Indonesia. https://www.cnnindonesia.com/ekonomi/20141110112428-92-10528/jokowi-sodorkan-ratusan-proyek-infrastruktur

Jayadi, A. (2017, August 02). Apa yang dimaksud dengan Perang Asimetris? https://www.dictio.id/t/apa-yang-dimaksud-dengan-perang-asimetris/6301

Kadafi, M. (2018, May 02). Lagi, 103 WN China ditangkap di Bali karena kasus penipuan. Merdeka.Com. https://m.merdeka.com/peristiwa/lagi-103-wn-china-ditangkap-di-bali-karena-kasus-penipuan.html

Kaprisma, H. (2020). Psychological Operations: From the Communication, Media, Propaganda, and Socio-Cultural Perspective. Jurnal Pertahanan, 6(2), 225–238.

Kompas. (2008, July 10). Perang Asimetris, Bentuk Perang Baru. https://tekno.kompas.com/read/2008/07/10/21091857/perang.asimetris.bentuk.perang.baru

Korwa, J.R.V. (2019). Kebangkitan China melalui Belt and Road Initiative dan (Re)konstruksi Hubungan Internasional dalam Sistem Westphalia. Jurnal Hubungan Internasional, 8(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.18196/hi.81141

Kumar, V., & Chandan, S. (2018). Modern Practices in Project Management of Turnkey Engineering and Construction Projects . ISBR Management Journal, 3(2), 19-29.

Laucereno, S. F. (2019, October 19). Daftar Lengkap Utang RI ke China. DetikFinance. https://finance.detik.com/berita-ekonomi-bisnis/d-4752167/daftar-lengkap-utang-ri-ke-china

Perwita, A.A.B., & Yani, Y.M. (2005). Pengantar Ilmu Hubungan Internasional. PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

Pranoto, M.A., & Hendrajit. (2016). Perang Asimetris & Skema Penjajahan Gaya Baru. Global Future Institute.

Rozaq, M. A. (2018). Investasi Turnkey Project dan Dinamika Keuntungan dan Tantangan Untuk Perekonomian Indonesia, Jurnal Marketing, 2(2), 161-167.

Sexton, E. (2016). Asymmetrical warfare. Encyclopaedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Aratus-of-Sicyon

Suryokusumo, S. (2016). Konsep sistem pertahanan non militer: suatu sistem pertahanan komplemen, sistem pertahanan militer dalam pertahanan rakyat semesta. Yayasan pustaka obor semesta.

The World Bank. (2010, July 16). Foreign Direct Investment – the China story. https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2010/07/16/foreign-direct-investment-china-story

Waseso, R. (2020, May 12). Jumlah tenaga kerja asing di Indonesia 98.902, TKA China terbesar. Kontan Site. https://nasional.kontan.co.id/news/jumlah-tenaga-kerja-asing-di-indonesia-98902-tka-china-terbesar-berikut-datanya

Weldes, J. (1996). Constructing national interests. European Journal of International Relations, 2(3), 275–318. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354066196002003001




DOI: https://doi.org/10.31957/pjdir.v1i1.1671

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.