Pneumonia pada Anak

Agnes S. Rahayu


Pneumonia is the leading cause of death among children worldwide. It causes more death than any other diseases, even AIDS and malaria. One of five children under the age of five died of pneumonia and over two million children around the world died of it each year.Pneumonia generally caused by infection, lungs become inflamed and congested, reducing oxygen exchangeandleading to cough and breathlessness.. In developed countries, deaths from pneumonia have been reduced by improvements in living conditions, air quality and nutrition. In the developing world today, many deaths from pneumonia are also preventable by immunization.

Key words: children, pneumonia, immunization.

Full Text:



Adegbola, R.A, O. Secka, G. Lahai, N. Lloyd-Evans, A. Njie, S. Usen, C. Oluwalana, S. Obaro, M. Weber, T. Corrah, K. Mulholland, K. McAdam, B. Greenwood, P.J.M. Milligan. 2005. Elimination of Haemophylus influenzae type b (Hib) disease from The Gambia after the introduction of routine immunisation with Hib conjugate vaccine: A prospective study. The Lancet. 366: 144-150.

Bell DM. 2006. Non-pharmaceutical interventions for pandemic influenza, international measures. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 81-87.

Brooks W.A., M. Yunus, M. Santosham, M.A Wahed, K. Nahar, S. Yeasmin, R. E. Black. 2004. Zinc for severe pneumonia in very young children. The Lancet. 363: 1683–1688.

Brooks WA, M. Yunus, M. Santosham, M.A Wahed, K. Nahar, S. Yeasmin, R. E. Black. 2005 Effect of weekly zinc supplements on incidence of pneumonia and diarrhoea in children younger than 2 years in an urban, low-income population in Bangladesh: randomized controlled trial. The Lancet. 366: 999-1004.

Brown, N. and C. Roberts. 2004. Vitamin A for acute respiratory infection in developing countries: a meta-analysis. Acta Paediatr. 93: 1437–1442.

Buie, K.A., K.P. Klugman, A. von Gottberg, O. Perovic, A. Karstaedt, H.H. Crewe-Brown, S. A. Madhi and C. Feldman. 2004. Gender as a risk factor for both antibiotic resistance and infection with pediatric serogroups/serotypes, in HIV-infected and–uninfected adults with pneumococcal bacteriemia. J. Infect Dis. 189: 1996-2000.

Dowell, S.F., R. L. Garman, G. Liu, O.S. Levine, and Y.-H. Yang. 2001. Evaluation of Binax NOW, an assay for the detection of pneumococcal antigen in urine samples, performed among pediatric patients. Clin Infect Dis. 32:824-825.

Jodar, L., J. Butler, G. Carlone, R. Dagan, D. Goldblatt, H. Käyhty, K. Klugman, B. Plikaytis, G. Siber, R. Kohberger, I. Chang, and T. Cherian. 2003. Serological criteria for evaluation and licensure of new pneumococcal conjugate vaccine formulations for use in infants. Vaccine. 21: 3265-32772.

Katz, M.A., P. Tharmaphornpilas, S. Chantra, S.F. Dowell, T. Uyeki, S. Lindstrom, A. Balish, T.C. Peret, M. Chittaganpitch, J.M. Simmerman, and S.J. Olsen. 2007. Who gets hospitalized for influenza pneumonia in Thailand? Implications for vaccine policy. Vaccine. 25: 3827-3833.

L`Her, P., P.S. Foster, A.M. Koskinen, and P. Coyle. 2006. The problema of oxigen in developing countries. Med Trop. 66:631-638.

Lloyd-Smith, J.O., S.J. Schreiber, P.E. Kopp. and W.M. Getz. 2005. Superspreading and the effect of individual variation on disease emergence. Nature. 438: 355-359.

Madhi, S.A. and K.P Klugman. 2004. A role for Streptococcus pneumoniae in virus-associated pneumonia. Nat Med. 10: 811-813.

Messina, A.F., K. Katz-Gaynor, T. Barton, N. Ahmad, Naveed F. Ghaffar, D. Rasko, G. McCracken. 2007. Impact of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Dallas, Texas. Pediatr Infect Dis. 26:461-467.

Murdoch, D.R. 2001. Evaluation of a rapid immuno-chromatographic test for detection of Streptococcus pneumonia antigen in urine samples from adults with community-acquired pneumonia. J Clin Microbiol. 39: 3495-3498.

Neuzil, K.M., B.G. Mellen, P.F. Wright, E. F. Mitchel, and M. R. Griffin. 2000. The effect of influenza on hospitalizations, outpatient visits, and courses of antibiotics in children. N. Engl J. Med. 342: 225-231.

Nokes, D.J., E. A. Okiro, M. Ngama, R. Ochola, L.J. White, P.D. Scott, M. English, P. A. Cane and G.F. Medley. 2007. Respiratory Syncitial Virus (RSV) infection and disease in infants and young children studied from birth in Kilifi District, Kenya. Clin Infect Dis. 46: 50–57.

Nolan, T., P. Angos, A.J.L.A. Cunha, L. Muhe, S. Qazi, E.A.F. Simoes, G. Tamburlini, M. Weber, and N.F. Pierce. 2006. Quality of hospital care for seriously ill children in less-developed countries. The Lancet. 357: 106-110.

Renckens, R., J.J.T.H. Roelofs, S. Knapp, A.F. de Vos, S. Florquin and T. van der Poll. 2006. The acute-phase response and serum amyloid A inhibit the inflammatory response to Acinetobacter baumannii Pneumonia. J Infect Dis. 193: 187-195.

Scott, J.A., and A.J. Hall. 1999. The value and complications of percutaneous transthorasic lung aspiration for for the etiologic diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia. Chest. 116: 1716-1732.

Scott, J.A.G., W. A. Brooks, J.S. M. Peiris, D. Holtzman, and E. K. Mulhollan. 2008. Pneumonia research to reduce childhood mortality in the developing world. J Clin Invest. 118: 1291-1300.

Templeton, K.E, S. A. Scheltinga, W.C.J.F.M. van den Eeden, W. A. Graffelman, P.J. van den Broek, and E.C.J. Claas. 2005. Improved diagnosis of the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Clin Infect Dis. 41: 345-351.

Truong-Tran, A.Q., R.E. Ruffin, P.S. Foster, A.M. Koskinen, P. Coyle, J.C. Philcox, A.M. Rofe, and P.D. Zalewski. 2002. Altered zinc homeostasis and caspase-3 activity in murine allergic airway inflammation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 27: 286-296.

UNICEF. 2007. State of the World`s Children. United Nations Children`s Fund. New York.

van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk S, Mapletoft JW, Arsic N, Kovacs-Nolan J. 2007. Immunopathology of RSV infection: prospects for developing vaccines without thiscomplication. Rev Med Virol. 17(1): 5–34.

Weber, M. W., P. Milligan, M. Sanneh, A. Awemoyi, R. Dakour, G. Schneider, A. Palmer, M. Jallow, A. Oparaogu, H. Whittle, E. K. Mulholland, and B. M. Greenwood. 2002. An epidemiological study of RSV infection in the Gambia. Bull. W.H.O. 80: 562-568.

WHO. 2006. Pneumonia: The forgotten killer of children. New York.

Williams, B. G., E. Gouws., C. Boschi-Pinto, J. Bryce, and C. Dye. 2002. Estimates world-wide distribution of child deaths from acute respiratory infections. Lancet Infect Dis. 2: 25-32.



  • There are currently no refbacks.