Pengujian Sifat Psikometri Skala Relational Aggression (RA) Versi Indonesia: Rasch Measurement Tool

Yuda Syahputra, Afdal Afdal


This study aims to validate by measuring the psychometric properties of the Indonesian version of the Relational Aggression (RA) scale. The study used a survey method and was collected from December 2019 to January 2020 and involved 241 participants in Indonesia (14 to 18 years). In this study the Rasch model was used to measure the psychometric properties of 17 RA items, with the help of WINSTEPS 3.73. The results of this study indicate that RA fulfills the psychometric measurement aspect by providing evidence as a valid and reliable instrument, with a very good item reliability value (.98) and sufficient person reliability (.75), and a Cronbach alpha value (KR-20) of (.81), meaning that the quality of the items is very good for revealing relational aggression. Furthermore, the results are reinforced by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) value of the residual of 45.2%, meaning that the items in RA are representative for measuring relational aggression. The implications of this RA research can be accepted by researchers for collecting data or information related to the problem of relational aggression in Indonesia.


Relational Aggression (RA); Rasch Measurement Tool (RMT); Psychometric; Validity.


Almivalli, C., Kaukiainen, A., & Lagerspetz, K. (2000). Aggression and sociometric status among peers: Do gender and type of aggression matter? Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 41(1), 17–24.

Archer, J., & Coyne, S. M. (2005). An integrated review of indirect, relational, and social aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9(3), 212–230.

Assegaf, A. R. (2004). Pendidikan Tanpa Kekerasan: Tipologi Kondisi, Kasus dan Konsep. Tiara Wacana.

Baroroh, E. Z., & Hertinjung, W. S. (2018). Pelatihan Ibrahim-Kun II Untuk Menurunkan Agresi Relasional Pada Siswa (Doctoral dissertation). Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta.

Berkowitz, L. (2005). Agresi I, Sebab dan Akibatnya. Terjemahan Hartati Woro Susiatni. Pustaka Binaman Pressindo.

Bjo¨rkqvist, K. (1994). Sex differences in physical, verbal, and indirect aggression: A review of recent research. Sex Roles, 30(3–4), 177–188.

Björkqvist, K. (1994). Sex differences in physical, verbal and indirect aggression: A review of recent research. Sex Roles, 30, 177–188.

Björkqvist, K., & Österman, K. (1992). Parental influence on children’s self‐estimated agressiveness. Aggressive Behavior, 18(6), 411–423.

Bond, T. G., & Fox, C. M. (2015). Applying the Rasch Model, Fundamental Measurement in the Human Science (3rd Editio). Routledge.

Boone, W. J., Stever, J. R., & Yale, M. S. (2014). Rasch Analysis in the Human Science. Springer.

Buss, A. (1961). The psychology of aggression. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Buss, A. H., & Perry, M. (1992). Personality Processes and Individual The Aggression Questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63(3), 452–459.

Card, Stucky, Sawalani, & Little. (2008). Direct and indirect aggression during childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic review of gender differences, intercorrelations, and relations to maladjustment. Child Dev, 79, 1185−1229.

Casey-Cannon, S., Hayward, C., & Gowen, K. (2001). Middle-school girls’ reports of peer victimization: Concerns, consequences, and implications. Professional School Counseling, 5(1), 138–147.

Crick, N. R., Casas, J. F., & Nelson, D. A. (2002). Toward a more comprehensive understanding of peer maltreatment: Studies of relational victimization. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(1), 98–101.

Dailey, A. L., Frey, A. J., & Walker, H. M. (2015). Relational aggression in school settings: Definition, development, strategies, and implications. Children & Schools, 37(2), 79–88.

Harianto, E., Matahari, D., & Ariela, J. (2017). Hubungan antara Agresi Relasional dan Self-Esteem Mahasiswi Universitas X. Jurnal Psikologi Ulayat: Indonesian Journal of Indigenous Psychology, 4(2), 188–202.

Haskett, M. E., & Willoughby, M. (2007). Paths to child social adjustment: Parenting quality and children’s processing of social information. Child: Care, Health and Development, 33(1), 67–77.

Irawan, Y. K. (2017, June 20). Tak Naik Kelas, Siswa Ini Nekat Pukul Gurunya Pakai Kursi Kayu. Kompas.Com.

Jajeli, R. (2018, February 2). Guru SMA di Sampang, Madura Tewas Diduga Karena Dianiaya Siswa. DetikNews.

Kawabata, Y., Alink, L. R., Tseng, W. L., Van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Crick, N. R. (2011). Maternal and paternal parenting styles associated with relational aggression in children and adolescents: A conceptual analysis and meta-analytic review. Developmental Review, 31(4), 240–278.

Keashly, L. (2001). Interpersonal and systemic aspects of emotional abuse at work: The target’s perspective. Violence and Victims, 16(3), 233_268.

Keenan, K., Coyne, C., & Lahey, B. B. (2008). Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(1), 86–93.

KumparanNEWS. (2018, March 8). Siswa di Pontianak Pukul Gurunya karena Handphone. KumparanNEWS.

Linacre, J. M. (2011). A User’s Guide to WINSTEPS Ministeps Rasch-Model Computer Programs. 0-941938-03-4

Marmorstein, N. R., & Iacono, W. G. (2004). Major depression and conduct disorder in youth: Associations with parental psychopathology and parent-child conflict. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(2), 377–386.

Marsinun, R., Erwinda, L., & Syahputra, Y. (2020). Homosexual and Transgender Tendencies in Terms of Gender: A Rasch Perspective. In International Conference on Progressive Education (ICOPE 2019) Atlantis Press, 422, 358–361.

Murray-Close, D., Ostrov, J. M., Nelson, D. A., Crick, N. R., & Coccaro, E. F. (2010). Proactive, reactive, and romantic relational aggression in adulthood: Measurement, predictive validity, gender differences, and association with intermittent explosive disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 44(6), 393–404.

Park, J., Essex, M. J., Zahn-Waxler, C., Armstrong, J. M., Klein, M. H., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2005). Relational and overt aggression in middle childhood: Early child and family risk factors. Early Education and Development. Special Issue: Relational Aggression during Early Childhood, 16, 233–256.

Pernice-Duca, F., Taiariol, J., & Yoon, J. (2010). Perceptions of School and Family Climates and Experiences of Relational Aggression. Journal of School Violence, 9(3), 303–319.

Prinstein, M. J., Boergers, J., & Vernberg, E. M. (2001). Overt and relational aggression in adolescents: Social-psychological adjustment of aggressors and victims. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30(1), 479–491.

Putranto, D. A. (2018, November 11). Video Viral Guru Dikeroyok Murid di Kendal, Kepala SMK NU 3 Kaliwungu. Tribunnews.

Rangka, I. B., Prasetyaningtyas, W. E., Ifdil, I., Ardi, Z., Suranata, K., Winingsih, E., Sofyan, A., Irawan, M., Arjanto, P., & Wijaya, R. S. (2018). Measuring psychometric properties of the Indonesian version of the NoMoPhobia Questionnaire (NMPQ): insight from Rasch measurement tool. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1114(1), 12127.

Sandjaja, S. S., Syahputra, Y., & Erwinda, L. (2020). Validasi skala penilaian instrumen perencanaan karier menggunakan Andrich Threshold. Persona: Jurnal Psikologi Indonesia, 9(1), 105–117.

Schober, G., Björkqvist, K., & Somppi, S. (2009). Identifying a new subcategory of aggression: Sex differences in direct non-verbal aggression. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 1(3), 58–70.

Sumintono, B., & Widhiarso, W. (2015). Aplikasi Model Rasch untuk Penelitian Ilmu-ilmu Sosial. Trim Komunikata.

Sumintono, B., & Widhiarso, W. (2015). Aplikasi Pemodelan Rasch pada Assessment Pendidikan. Trim Komunikata.

Syahputra, Y., & Afdal, A. (2020). Yuda Afdal Relational Aggression Scale.

Syahputra, Y., Rangka, I. B., Solihatun, S., Folastri, S., & Oktasari, M. (2020). Mengukur Sifat Psikometri Phubbing Scale (PS): Rasch Measurement Tool (RMS). In Seminar Nasional Daring IIBKIN 2020, 120–128.

Syahputra, Y., Sandjaja, S. S., Afdal, A., & Ardi, Z. (2019). Development aninventory of homosexuality and transgender exposure (IHTE): A Rasch analysis. Konselor, 8(4), 120–133.

Taylor, S. E., Peplau, L. A., & Sears, D. O. (2009). Psikologi Sosial Edisi Kedua Belas. Kencana Prenada Media Group.

Vaillancourt, T. (2007). Trajectories and predictors of indirect aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 33(1), 314–326.

Voulgaridou, I., & Kokkinos, C. M. (2020). The mediating role of friendship jealousy and anxiety in the association between parental attachment and adolescents’ relational aggression: A short-term longitudinal cross-lagged analysis. Child Abuse & Neglect, 109, 104717.

Wu, L., Zhang, D., Su, Z., & Hu, T. (2015). Peer victimization among children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review of links to emotional adjustment. Clinical Pediatrics, 54, 941–955.

Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., & Pronk, R. E. (2012). Relation of depression and anxiety to self- and peer-reported relational aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 38, 16–30.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Syahputra, Y., Afdal, A

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Universitas Cenderawasih

Address: Jurusan Ilmu Pendidikan Program Studi Bimbingan dan Konseling | Jl. Raya Sentani Jayapura, Papua 99358, Indonesia. 
Phone: (+0967) 582 198 | Close in sunday and public holidays in Indonesia
Work Hours: 09.00 AM – 08.00 PM
Best hours to visit: From 9 am to 11 am or after 3 pm. The busiest times are between 11 am and 3 pm. 

 Creative Commons License
Cenderawasih Journal of Counseling and Education is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.