Status Kesuburan Perairan Laut ditinjau dari Keragaman Plankton di Kawasan Kepala Burung, Papua Barat

Suharno Suharno, Daniel Lantang


Papua is well known asa megabiodiversity area because it has high diverse biological resources; on the other hand the diversity of plankton biota has not been much studied. Plankton has an important role in the food chain system in the waters, both at sea, freshwater and brackish. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of marine water fertility based on the presence of plankton diversity in the Kepala Burung, West Papua Province. The method used was a survey, with sampling at six (6) point coordinates in Manokwari and Sorong regency. The results showed that there were 66 types of plankton found in marine waters Manokwari and Sorong, Kepala Burung region, West Papua Province. Therefore these waters are still quite fertile with diversity index (H') in Manokwari was 2.80 (32 types of plankton), whereas in Sorong 3.16 (48 species).

Key words: plankton, water fertility, Manokwari, Sorong, West Papua Province.

Full Text:



Ajani, P and D. Rissik. 2009. Coastal and marine phytoplankton: diversity and ecology. In: Plankton, A guide to their ecology and monitoring for water quality (Eds: I.M. Suthers and D. Rissik). CSIRO Publishing. Australia. pp: 141–156.

Anderson, D.M., P.M. Glibert and J.M. Burkholder. 2002. Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Nutrient sources, composition, and consequences. Estuaries. 24: 704–726.

Chen, C.Y and E.G. Durbin. 1994. Effects of pH on the growth and carbon uptake of marine phytoplankton. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 109: 83–94.

Cullen, J.J. 1990. On models of growth and photosyntesis in phytoplankton. Deep-Sea Researh. 37(4): 667–683.

Diekmann, A.B.S., M.A. Peck, L. Holste, M.A. St. John and R.W. Campbell. 2009. Variation in diatom biochemical composition during a simulated bloom and its effect on copepod production J. Plankton Res. 31(11): 1391–1405.

Ding, X., F. Bassinat, F. Guichard, Q.Y. Li, N.Q. Fang, L. Labeyrie, R.C. Xin, M.K. Adisaputra, and K. Hardjawidjaksana. 2006. Distribution and ecology of planctonic foraminifera from the seas around the Indonesian archipelago. Marine Micropaleontology. 58: 114–134.

Echevarría, F., L.Z.A. Corzo, G. Navarro, L. Prieto and D. Macías. 2009. Spatial distribution of autotrophic picoplankton in relation to physical forcings: the Gulf of Cádiz, Strait of Gibraltar and Alborán Sea case study. Abstract. J. Plankton Res. 31: 1339-1351.

Falkowski, P.G. 1994. The role of phytoplankton photo-synthesis in global biogeochemical cycles. Photosyn-thesis Research. 39: 235–258.

Gallengos, C.L. 1992. Phytoplankton photosynthesis, produc-tivity, and species composition in a eutrophic estuary: comparisson of bloom and non-bloom assenblages. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 81: 257–267.

Goericke, R. 2011. The structure of marine phytoplankton communities: patterns, rules and mechanisms. CalCOFI. 52: 182–197.

Grover, J.P., and T.H. Chrzanowski. 2006. Seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton in two warm temperate reservoirs: association of taxonomic composition with tempe-rature. Jurnal of Plankton Research. 28(1): 1–17.

Hays, G.C., A.J. Richardson and C. Robinson. 2005. Climate change and marine phytoplankton. TRENS in Ecology and Evolution. 20(6): 337–344.

Hinga, K.R. 2002. Effects of pH on coastal marine phytoplankton. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 238: 281–300.

Hutomo, M. 1975. Variasi musiman fitoplankton di perairan sekitar Pulau Ayer. Oseanologi di Indonesia. 4: 1–12.

Imai, I., M. Yamaguchi and Y. Hori. 2006. Eutrophication and occurrences of harmful algal blooms in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Plankton Bentos Res. 1(2): 71–84.

Kennish, M.J. 1994. Practical handbook of marine science. Second edition. CRC Press. Florida.

Kolber, Z. and P.G. Falkowski. 1993. Use of active fluores-cence to estimate phytoplankton photosynthesis in situ. Limnol Oceanogr. 38(8): 1646–1665.

MacIntyre, H.L., E. Lawrenz, and T.L. Richardson. 2010. Taxonomic discrimination of phytoplankton by spectral fluorescence. In: Chlorophyll a fluorerscence in aquatic Science: Methods and Applications. Developments in applied phycology 4. (D.J. Suggett et al., Eds). Springer Sciences+Bussiness Media B.V.

Mulyadi and I.F.M. Rumengan. 2012. Zooplankton researches in Indoensia waters: A historical review. Coastal Marine Science. 35(1): 202–207.

Needham, P.R. 1962. A guide to the study of fresh-water Biology. 5th Edition. Holden day, Inc. San Fransisco.

Nontji, A. 2008. Plankton laut. Penerbit LIPI Press. Jakarta.

Nontji, A. and O.H. Arinardi. 1975. Oceanologi dan diatom plankton di laut Jawa. Oseanologi di Indonesia. 4: 21–36.

Ptacnik, R., T. Anderson and T. Tamminen. 2010. Performance of the redfield ratio and a family of nutrient limitation indicators as thresholds for phytoplankton N vs P limitation. Ecosystems. 13: 1201–1214.

Redden, A.M., T. Kobayashi, I. Suthers, L. Bowling, D. Rissik and G. Newton. 2009. Plankton process and the environment In: Plankton, A guide to their ecology and monitoring for water quality (Eds: I.M. Suthers and D. Rissik). CSIRO Publishing. Australia. pp: 15–38.

Rissik, D., D. van Senden, M. Doherty, T. Ingleton, P. Anjani, L. Bowling, M. Gibbs, M. Gladstone, T. Kobayashi, I. Suthers and W. Froneman. 2009. Plankton-related environmental and water-quality issues. In: Plankton, A guide to their ecology and monitoring for water quality (Eds: I.M. Suthers and D. Rissik). CSIRO Publishing. Australia. pp: 39–72.

Russel-Hunter, W.D. 1970. Aquaticproductivity: An introduntion to some basic concept of biological oceanography and limnology. Mc.Millan Publishing, Inc. New York.

Sagala, E.P. 2009. Potensi komunitas plankton dalam mendukung kehidupan komunitas nekton di perairan rawa gambut Lebak Jungkal, di Kecamatan Pampangan, Kabupaten Ogan Ilir (OKI) Propinsi Sumatera Selatan. Jurnal Penelitian Sains. 9: 12–11.

Schabhuttl, S., P. Hingsamer, G. Weigelhofer, T. Hein, A. Weigert, and M. Striebel. 2012. Temperature and species richness effect in phytoplankton communities. Ocealogia. DOI: 10.1007/s0044-012-2419-4.

Sedidadi, A. 2004. Dominasi Cyanobacteria pada musim peralihan di perairan laut Banda dan sekitarnya. Makara SAINS. 8(1): 1–14.

Simon, N. A.-L. Cras, E. Foulan, and R. Lemee. 2009. Diversity and evolution of marine phytoplankton. C.R. Biologies. 332: 159–170.

Smith, W., D. Steinberg, D. Bronk and K. Tang. 2008. Marine plankton food webs and cliamte changes. Williams & Mary VIMS. Virginia Institute Marine Science. Virginia.

Soedibjo, B.S. 2007. Pengaruh faktor lingkungan terhadap distribusi spasial komunitas zooplankton di teluk Klabat, Perairan Bangka Belitung. Oseanologi dan Limnologi di Indonesia. 33: 47–63.

Sosik, H.M. and B.G. Mitchell. 1995. Light absorption by phytoplankton, photosynthesis pigments and detritus in the California currents system. Deep-Sea Researh. 42(10): 1717–1748.

Sosik, H.M. and R.J. Olson. 2007. Automated taxonomic classification of phytoplankton sampled with imaging-in-flow cytomrtry. Limnol Oceanogr: Methods. 5: 204–216.

Suharno and P. Setyono. 2010. Water quality based on plankton diversity in Bian river estuary-Merauke, Papua. Proceeding of international seminar on green water resources. Solo-Indonesia, May 8th-9th, 2010.

Suharno dan D. Lantang. 2010. Keragaman jenis plankton di perairan laut Kota Jayapura, Papua. Jurnal Biologi Papua. 2(1): 7–11.

Sujarta, P. 2005. Keanekaragaman Diatom (Divisi: Chrysophyta, Kelas: Bacillariophyceae) di Teluk Arguni, Kaimana-Papua. SAINS. 5(2): 50–53.

Sujarta, P., H.L. Ohee dan E. Rahareng. 2011. Kajian keragaman plankton dan ikan di perairan teluk tanah merah Distrik Depapre, Kabupaten Jayapura, Papua. Jurnal Biologi Papua. 3(2): 67–73.

Suthers, I., M. Dawson, K. Pitt and A.G. Miskiewicz. 2009. Coastal and marine zooplankton: diversity and biology. In: Plankton, A guide to their ecology and monitoring for water quality (Eds: I.M. Suthers and D. Rissik). CSIRO Publishing. Australia. pp: 181–222.

Thoha, H. 2007. Kelimpahan plankton di ekosistem perairan Teluk Gilimanuk, Taman Nasional, Bali Barat. MAKARA-SAINS. 11(1): 44–48.

Wardhana, W. 2003. Penggolongan plankton. Materi Pelatihan Teknik Sampling dan Identifikasi Plankton. Jakarta, 7–8 Mei 2003.

Watson, S.B., E. McCauley, and J.A. Downing. 1997. Patterns in phytoplankton taxonomic composition across temperate lakes of differing nutrient status. Limnol Oceanogr. 42(3): 487–495.

Whiten, B., B. McDonald and C. Drovandi. 2011. Taxonomy analysis of marine phytoplankton. ANZIAM J. 52: 119–146.



  • There are currently no refbacks.